wtorek, 24 kwietnia 2018

Wedelia - Wedelia chinensis - trilobata / Sphagneticola chinensis - trilobata

 Polska wersja

          PLANT PROFILE

    Wedelia is a name for the plants genus that includes many species, but when it comes to herbalism word Wedelia almost often refer as a common name to just one plant. Unfortunately this plant has many botanical names used contemporarily, and there is a big mess when it comes to it's latin nomenclature. It's two equally popular names are Wedelia chinensis and Wedelia trilobata, although many authors write wrongly like if it would be two different species. To make it more complicated, the name Wedelia calendulacea, that was long ago classified as just a synonym for W. chinensis is still very often used, and name Wedelia paludosa although also long ago classified as just a synonym for W. trilobata, can be found as a main name for this plant in modern texts, quite often too. And there are three names Sphagneticola chinensis, Sphagneticola calendulacea and Sphagneticola trilobata for this plant, that are getting more popular nowadays. Because some wise botanists decided that from now on this plant no longer match criteria of Wedelia genus and should be officially recognized as a Sphagneticola species. There is also many other botanical synonyms of this plant, that went out of use. But name Wedelia is so deeply rooted in this plant identity all around the world, appearing over many years in so many books and nowadays webpages, that it will be very hard to change it. And so it will probably be very hard to end false division of this one species into two chinensis and trilobata.
    Wedelia is a crawling, perennial, evergreen weed, that forms wast patches over tropical and subtropical lands. It is generally considered that Wedelia chinensis is native to India, China and South-East Asia, and Wedelia trilobata is a different species that originate from Caribbean, Central America and north of South America (and was introduced to Asia as an ornamental plant, escaped cultivation and get naturalized). This plant has an ancient old tradition of medicinal uses in Ayourveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Unani (Perso-Arabic traditional system of medicine) and Siddha (traditional medicine system of Tamil culture), as well as well established tradition of medicinal applications in different cultures of Caribbean and Central and South America. But although huge number of scientific medical and phytopharmacological studies have been made on this plant, in many different countries like India, China, Taiwan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand and Brasil. And many of it's healing properties has been well proved, and so it's uses in treatment of liver ailments, stomach infections, skin infections, fevers, arthritis and inflammations, has been approved by orthodox medicine practitioners. Wedelia is still little known in Western Herbalism.
    But it's popularity as a ornamental plant is growing in the western world, just as it is in South-East Asian countries. Even in those tropical countries where it grows as a wild plant and it's healing properties are quite commonly known, it is mainly known as just ornamental plant. It is much appreciated as a good, resistant and low maintenance ground cover plant, that produce lots of flowers all year round, even though it is easily becoming invasive.


       THE PLANT NAMES PROBLEM

   The division of this plant into two different species has started long ago. When first explorers from Europe has started to give botanical names in latin binominal way to newly found plants from other continents. They often haven't seen the works of other writers. So while one botanist was giving name to the plant from Asia, the other was writing about the same species found in Caribbean, given it a different botanical name. Later the new generations of scientists was just following one or other botanical label. Most of authors just ignored problematic other species, and when their plant matched the description from one source they totally discarded information about other species. Some of those few that has confronted both sources of information has concluded that : Wedelia trilobata - as it name indicate, should have distinct 3 lobes on its leaves, while Wedelia chinensis should have leaves with more smooth margins only bit serrated or lobed...




      ...but look at this :




   When I first saw this plant growing wild in forest in north of the Philippines 3 years ago. I reminded myself that I have seen it already in a book about Singaporean herbs. Later I've started to see it in many different places, in wild and in cultivation, in the Philippines and Malaysia. But I never seen it in any botanical garden, nor have anyone with right authority to tell me proper scientific name for this plant. So instead of following someones opinion I had to properly identify the plant myself (which actually I have to do with most of the plants that I newly found). Like many authors after seeing that my plants characteristics match found description of Wedelia trilobata, I could've just forget about Wedelia chinensis and not to bother. But as I've seen many photos and descriptions of both WT and WC (many of which contradict other), and how different shape can have leaves of those plants growing even in the same location. I've started to investigate it deeper and deeper. Reading about those two species from every possible source, and doing more field research and environmental impact tests. My conclusion is simple - there is only one species of those particular plants, and it's leaves are growing more lobbed under strong sun exposure, and the more shade the plants gets the more smooth its leaves margins will be. Therefore to avoid further confusion it should be called Wedelia chinensis-trilobata or Wedelia trilobata-chinensis or if someone prefer Sphagneticola trilobata-chinensis.
   For all the sceptics I advice to read the only proper investigation that tries to confront the two species - Integrative Approach to Analyze Biodiversity and Anti-Inflammatory Bioactivity of Wedelia Medicinal Plants  and ridiculous Responses of the Hybrid between Sphagneticola trilobata and Sphagneticola calendulacea to Low Temperature and Weak Light Characteristic in South China - which states that '' The distributions of S. trilobata, S. calendulacea and their hybrid usually form a mosaic along riverbanks, coastlands and other moist habitats in subtropical China ''. And do the environment impact tests. You can simply put trilobbed leaved plants to grow for some time in the shade, or smoothly toothed ones under full sun until the new leaves emerge to see the change.
I also encourage debate in the comment section below.

   As this plant is popular in many tropical and subtropical countries across the world, so it has many common names in different languages : Yellow Dots, Creeping Daisy, Pseudo-arnica, Rabbit's Paw, Bay Biscayne, Creeping Oxeye, Trailing Wedelia, Creeping Wedelia, Chinese Wedelia, Gold-cup, Singapore daisy, Trailing Daisy, Wild marigold (English), Pitabhringa-raaja, Pilabhamgara, Bhringraj (Hindi), Pitabhringi (Sanskrit) - (although commonly Wedelia is often called Bhringraja just like Eclipta alba, as both herbs are used in the same way for the same conditions, proper Ayurvedic name for Wedelia chinensis-trilobata is Pita Bhrngaraja - while Eclipta alba is Sweta Bhrngaraja. In Siddha Wedelia is called Manjal Karisalankanni, and Eclipta alba is Vellai Karisalankanni), Manjal Karisaalai, Manjal Kayyonni (Tamil), Pivala-Bhangra (Marathi), Gargari, Kalsarji (Kannada), Kesraj, Bangra, Bhimraj, Bhimra, Mahavringaraj (Bangladesh), Mohavringaraj, Vringaraj, Kesaraja, Kesuria (Bengali), Mannakkannunni (Malayalam), Guntagalagara (Telugu), Birimgarsi (Konkani), Peng-qi-ju, Pang K’iKiou, Nan mei peng qi ju (China), Parng-kay-guk (Hong kong), Hwang-hua-mih-tsay (Taiwan), Sai Dat, Hung Tram, Cuc Nhap, Ngo Nui, Ngo Dat (Vietnam), Manzanilla, Manzanilla de Playa, Margarita Amarilla, Margarita de Pasto, Romerillo, Saladillo Macho, Yerba Buena Cimarrona (Spanish), Arnica-do-mato, Pseudo-arnica, Margaridao, Picao da Praia, Vedelia (Brasil) Clavelín de Playa, Clavelito de Muerto, Clavellin (Panama), Romero de playa (Cuba), Z Herbe a Femme (Dominica), Mary Goules (Jamaica), Singapoer-madeliefie (South Africa), Ate (Tonga), Ut Mokadkad, Ut Telia (Marshall Islands), Wedelie, Goldstern (Germany), Patte Canard (French), Kra Dum Tong (Thailand), Wedelia Kuning (Malaysia), America Hama-guruma (Japan), Ampelkrage (Sweden).



          CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING

    Wedelia chinensis-trilobata is a highly resistant, creeping, perennial plant, with succulent stems. It's stems can grow around 2m long, but it is quite soft and usually standing upright until it is around 50cm tall, and later laying flat. And as it touches the ground it quickly grow roots from every node, and also a new side stems. That is how it create dense ground cover mat, that can spread for tens of square meters, but is usually not higher than 0,5m. In sunny, dry places it usually lay very flat reaching less than 10cm in height, while in wet shady areas its upright stems can reach around 50cm, but when it has some support to climb on, then it can go up to more than 1m height.
   Wedelia chinensis-trilobata can grow on almost every kind of soil, it even tolerates high level of salinity and can be often found on tropical beaches. It grows equally well under full sun as in shady areas, but in shade it is producing less flowers, although just like under full sun it flowers all year round. It's growth is more rapid and robust in worm and humid climate, in rich compost, bit acidic soil. This plant copes well with both strong temporary droughts and short term flooding. It can't withstand frosts, but even if short term low temperatures will kill it's stems, it is very likely to regrow from it's ground covered stems (old stems that lay on the ground are becoming kind of like rhizomes, after it gets covered by compost from fallen leaves etc., and grow roots). Just as it can do after it gets destroyed by extreme drought. Although it is considered to be mainly low altitude or coastal plant, it thrive in mountains of Baguio city in the Philippines at elevations over 1600m, both in open spaces and in pine forests and jungle.
   It creates dense monotypic groundcover, overcoming other small plants, not only as it blocks sun access and stealing water in its area, crowding competition out. But also because it produces allelopathic substances, that stops seeds of other plants from sprouting. That is why cutted Wedelia plants are used as a good, nitrogen rich compost fertilizer with available phosphorus and potassium, and well improving the community of soil microbes, only after partial rotting. It is exccelent plant for planting for soil retention and erosion control on slopes and river banks.
   It is a great plant to be planted in places where other plants could be damaged by stepping on. If you step on it it will either bounce back, or even if it's stems get broken, the stems rather grow new roots from any of the stem nodes then die. Wedelia trilobata-chinensis is generally resistant to diseases and pests, but in Sri Lanka, it is a favoured host of Cuscuta campestris a parasitic weed (that is also a medicinal plant). Wedelia can be planted as a companion crop to successfully combat Silverleaf Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), common vegetable pest in Puerto Rico, the southern USA and the Caribbean Basin. The alcoholic extracts of W. chinensis gave very good results to protect the plants against Plutella xylostella, common pest on cabbage an other cruciferous crops. This plant has also shown molluscicidal and larvicidal actions, given it possibilities of use in snails and slugs and mosquitoes control.
   All plant parts contain sesquiterpene lactones (eudesmanolides, ivalin), which in big ammounts are toxic to livestock mammals when ingested and known to result in aborted fetuses in cattle.
   Wedelia chinensis-trilobata attracts many pollinating insects usefull in agriculture, including honey bees, therefore it can be a valuable plant for fruit crops growers and commercial honey producers
  All parts of the plant can be harvested at any time of year.


         CULINARY USES

  Quite long ago, when I was just starting to be interested in this plant, I've read somewhere that Wedelia is generally used in Asia in the same way as Chamomile in the West. And while the tastes of those two infusions are quite different, I would say that it has very similar character. Mildly bitter, aromatic, and as for me not very tasty. So I drink it only for it's health benefits and not for the pleasure. But if you add bit of lemon and good honey, Wedelia can be quite nice beverage tea. It can be used fresh or dried, but I always use it fresh, because when you have your own plants all the time, drying is waste of time and herbs medicinal value (many bioactive constituents are getting destroyed during drying process).
  Although I've read about Wedelia calendulacea to be used in India as a functional food, I've only found evidence of it to be edible, used dried and powdered in capsules labeled as a food suplement.  I've tried to eat one raw leaf and have to spit it out, as the taste was unbearable. Though it left my mouth very refreshed. All parts of the plant contain eudsmanolide - ivalin and other sesquiterpene lactones, which cause abortion in farm animals that crazed on Wedelia. I couldn't found any information about if eudesmanolides are getting neutralized during drying or boiling. In the Caribbean women are drinking Wedelia tea to stimulate childbirth and remove placenta afterbirth or to induce abortion. Therefore pregnant women should avoid this herb in any form.


      COSMETIC USES

  The leaves of Wedelia chinensis-trilobata are traditionally used to dye hair black, especially grey hair, to promote the growth of new hair and to repel lice. Expressed juice of Wedelia chinensis contains an oil-soluble black dye, waxy compounds, phytosterols, tannins, saponins, carotene, inorganic salts, siliceous materials and resin, among other often highly antiseptic compounds.
  Here is an old recipe for Wedelia hair oil, that is said to remove scurf from the head, turn grey hairs black and cure alopecia. It comes from Indian book published in 1877, called - '' The Materia Medica Of The Hindus '' by Udoy Chand Dutt :

  Bhringaraja taila - Take of sesamum oil four seers (1 seer equal to 1.25 kg), juice of bhringaraja (Wedelia chinensis-trilobata) leaves, sixteen seers, iron rust, tho three myrobalans and tho root of Ichnocarpus frutescens (syamalata), reduced to a paste, in all one seer, and prepare an oil in the usual way.  

   Wedelia juice is also used in tatooing, after puncturing the skin, juicy green leaves of Wedelia chinensis or Eclipta prostata are rubbed over the skin spot, both plants are said to give indelible colour, namely a deep bluish black.



         MEDICINAL USES

  Wedelia chinensis-trilobata has a very old tradition of wide medicinal use and high reputation in Ayourveda, Unani, Siddha and Traditional Chinese Medicine, and also in traditional systems of healing in Carribean and Central and South America. There is a lots of phytopharmacological and laboratory medicinal studies that have been done on this plant under the name Wedelia chinensis and Wedelia trilobata. But also quite few in which the name Wedelia calendulacea or Wedelia paludosa was used for this species. But no matter what name is in the study title, it all confirm the same medicinal actions that has been attributed to this plant by many different cultures for centuries.
   This herb is : bitter, acrid, worming, astringent, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, febrifuge, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, tonic, immuno-stimulatory, alterative, analgesic (antinociceptive), anticancer, anti-leukemia, anthelmintic (trypanocidal, leishmanicidal), larvicidal, antimalarial, hypoglycemic, cardiotonic, antiulcerogenic, cholagogue, deobstruent, expectorant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, smooth muscle relaxant, antistress and antidepressant, sedative, neuroprotective, demulcent, vulnerary, ophthalmic, trichogenous, diuretic, sudorific, and shown androgen suppressing activities - which might be related with aphrodisiac action that few Ayourvedic sources attribute to this herb, it is also described as useful in vitiated conditions of Kapha and Vata.
   The extracted essential oil of Wedelia chinensis-trilobata, has been found to act itself as a antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cough-relieving agent.

   Wedelia chinensis-trilobata is commonly sold in many tropical countries as a fresh herb on local markets, and in herbal shops and pharmacies in form of dried herb, capsules, tablets or tinctures. This herb is important ingredient in many herbal formulas and prescription drugs in India and China, mainly for liver problems, infections and inflammations. Also individual chemical compounds isolated from this plant are used in phytopharmaceutical formulations, for example wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone (coumestans derivatives) used in anti-hepatoxic drugs.The juice squeezed from Wedelia leaves is much used in soaking various sorts of powders for the preparation of pills. In many countries where this plant is unavailable as a medicinal herb, it can be bought as a live plant from ornamental plants sellers.

   If you look at the results of phytochemical screening of those plants. Initially you might think that I am wrong about saying that W. chinensis and W. trilobata are the same species, as the results of the studies shows huge variability in the plants chemical composition. But if you look only at results of tests for the plants that has been give the same one name, for example only W. chnensis. You will see that the variability between those plants samples chemical compositions is not any lesser than between chemical composition of plant samples identified as different species that I've named here. The reason for that is that although the plants named W. chinensis, W. triolobata, W. calendulacea and W. paludosa are showing no morphological differences that would justify their division into the separate species. As every herb this plant will have different chemical composition when growing in different soils, enironment and weather conditions (not to mention season of the harvesting). Some plants can contain much different amounts of chemical compounds, even if they can't be distinguished from each other by its appearance, even if they grow in the same conditions. It is caused by different genetical ancestry or mutation, and such plants can be recognized as a different chemotypes of the same species, but only after many laboratory studies.
   In general aerial parts of Wedelia chinensis-trilobata contains : diterpenes, kaurenoic acid, kauren and ent-kauren acids and other kaurenoids, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones (eudesmanolides (ivalin), wedeolides), coumarines, wedelolactones, paludolactone, eudesmanolide lactones, tannin, saponins, flavonoids (luteolin, apigenin), isoflavonoids, steroids (stigmasterol and it's derivatives), alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, indolic and phenolic glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid, salicylic acid, trans-p-hydroxycinamic acid, norwedilic acid, melissic acid, lignoceric acid, phenol, corepsin, bisdesmoside, carotene, indole-3-carboxyaldehyde, inorganic salts, siliceous materials, pectin, mucin, lignans, waxy compound, resin, gum and volatile oil (0.17-0.25%, mainly hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, hydrocarbon monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes). Cardiac glycosides were richly present in the flower extracts of Wedelia trilobata.

    Essential oil of the plant consist mainly on : α-phellandrene (1.4-28.5%), germacrene D (11.9-35.8%), D-limonene (14.22%), 1,5,5-trimethyl-6-methylenecyclohexene (10.11%), α-pinene (7.3-83.3%), E-caryophyllene (4.6-19.0%), bicyclogermacrene (6.0-17.0%), limonene (1.8-21.3%), α-humulene (4.0-11.6%), γ-muurolene (11.8%), spathulenol (20.3%), components such as carvocrol, T-caryophyllene, β-pinene, phytol, sabinene, camphene, aromadendrene, 3-decynex, thymol, alpha-bergamotene, ortho-lymene, y-terpinene, alpha-terpinene, beta myrcene, were also isolated from the plant.



   All parts of Wedelia chinensis-trilobata plant, including roots, can be used fresh or dried. Internally this herb is usually taken in form of infusions or decoctions, but tinctures and pills are also made, for many common ailments and serious diseases like :

- Liver problems : this herb has long history of traditional use in revitalizing the liver and treating liver and gall bladder dysfunction and diseases, like : jaundice, hepatitis (including viral hepatitis and acute hepatitis induced by hepatotoxins), hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic enlargement and abdominal swellings, and to protect it from damage by toxins. It is widely used as a cholagogue, and a deobstrucent. In Indian indigenous system of medicine, the juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice, indigestion due to sluggish liver and white stool. Wedelia's hepatoprotective actions have been proved in many scientific tests, paving it way to use by many orthodox medicine practitioners.

- Digestive tract ailments : it is commonly used to treat mild indigestion, colic as well as serious problems like dysentery, inflammation of the intestines especially the colon, diarrhea, abdominal pains, and gastric ulcers (a patent was filed for mucosal protective activity of W. chinensis). Decoctions of this herb are used in the quantity of half of teacupful twice daily, as anaperient to ease constipation. 
  The plant decoctions are said to be used as a emetic and purgative, but I guess it is only when very strong or taken in big quantities. As only few sources are mentioning these actions and I've never had such experience after drinking my Wedelia Tea. Also from experience I can guess that if anyone would manage to swallow few fresh leaves of Wedelia, it's terrible taste could probably cause such a drastic effects.

- Inflammations and pains : it's strong antiinflammatory and analgesic actions are used to treat pains like arthritic joint pain (also juvenile arthritis and gout), rheumatism, headaches, toothaches, pharyngitis, phlegmon, otalgia, backache, muscle cramps, sores and swellings, also persistent wounds, mastitis, edemas, osteoporosis of knee and Osteochondritis dissecans. Wedelia leaf extracts are approved natural alternative to commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs, like Dolonex (Piroxicam), Brufen (Ibuprofen) and Voveran etc.

 - Wound healing stimulation - studies provided scientific evidence that this herb posses support wound healing activity, due to combination of fibroblast stimulation, reducing inflammation, antioxidant and antiseptic properties.

- Brain tonic, mental functions enhancer and stress reliever : in Ayourveda the whole plant decoction is taken to calm the mind from excessive stress, soothe headaches and noisy sleep, and as a nervine tonic. It has a renowned position in Indian systems of medicine and is used in  neuropharmacological disorders like convulsion as a traditional drug. In Siddha it is considered to enhance memory and intelligence. This herb  posses antistress, antidepresant, sedative, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective actions, and is used for headaches, mental tensions, to reduce anxiety and stress in emotional conditions, and to help in multiple sclerosis, to induce sleep and strengthening the nervous system. The juice of the leaves is much used as a snuff in headaches.

- Infections : Wedelia is commonly used to fight many kind of bacterial and fungal and some of viral infections, whether it is respiratory tract, digestive, genitourinary or skin infections. It is used for colds, flu (decoctions are drunk but also crushed leaves are used as poultice to alleviate symptoms of cold and flu), pertussis, desyntery, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, candida, cystitis, measles, abscesses, boils, impetigo, diphtheria.
   Many different tests has proved Wedelia's varied effectivness against pathogens like : Streptococcus haemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Clavibacter michiganensis sub sp. michiganensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Xanthomonas oryzae, X. axanopodis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Epidermophyton floccossum, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium.

- Respiratory tract diseases : decoctions of aerial parts of the plant are used as a cure for asthma and bronchitis, as well as for respiratory infections. 

- Kidney problems : this herb is often used for treatment of kidney dysfunctioning, to protect renal tissue, to cure infections, painful or burning urination and stopping of urine, cystitis and edema.

- Fevers : Wedelia is used for the treatment of different kinds of fevers, including cold and eruptive fever, and rheumatic fever. In Vietnam it is used against malaria.

- Women complaints : in the Caribbean it is commonly used for menstrual pain and delayed menses, it is also used for mastitis.

- Childbirth : the information that '' The leaves and stems are used in childbirth '', probably means that this herb is used to stimulate childbirth. As it is also used to induce abortion and to remove placenta after birth. After childbirth women drink a tea of W. trilobata also to contract the uterus and stop hemorrhage, and its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and nerve calming properties are probably also much in help. The herb is even taken as a fertility enhancer, for reproductive problems.

- Diabetes : infusion of this plant are used in the management of diabetes in southern part of Brazil, where it is popularly referred to as insulina due to its observed antidiabetic properties. Studies on rats confirmed the plant's considerable hypoglycemic effect with concomitant improvement on the antioxidant status. In addition, this herb can improve the impaired dysfunction in hepatic, renal, spleenic and testes tissues that are associated with diabetes.

- Cancer : laboratory tests has shown good results for this herb in inhibition of growth or inducing cancer cells death in some forms of prostate, skin and lung cancer cell lines.

- Cardiac problems : this herb is traditionally used as cardiotonic. Studies has shown that W. chinensis possess cardioprotective and thrombolytic properties, which suggested the application of the herb for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. All parts of the plant contain cardiac glycosides, with flowers to be it's richest source. Authors of one study observed that the aqueous extract of Wedelia chinensis leaves been found to have cardiotonic activity, without producing the cardiac arrest even at high dose when compared to marketed drug Digoxin. So this test drug can be a better alternative for the Cardiotonic drugs.

- Ophthalmic problems : Wedelia is used to strengthen vision, in nyctalopia (night blindness) and dysopia

- This herb is also taken internally to cure hair diseases and to stimulate it's growth, to treat anemia, lack of blood, hemorrhages (including uterine hemorrhages), helminthiasis, elephantiasis, snakebites, stingray wounds, and seminal weakness.

In Vietnam a standard daily dose for Wedelia is 50 to 100 g of fresh leaves in the form of an expressed juice, or 20 to 40g of dried plant in the form of a decoction or extract.



   Wedelia chinensis-trilobata has also many external uses :

- Paste of pounded fresh leaves and stems is applied on painful joints to relieve arthritis and rheumatic symptoms, on backache, muscle cramps, stubborn wounds, sores, swellings and topical inflammations and skin diseases. It is also used as a cooling poultice to alleviate fever symptoms of cold and flu.

- Boiled fresh stems and leaves are used for bathe those suffering from backache, muscle cramps, rheumatism, or swellings, it is also good anti-inflammatory antiseptic wash for skin diseases. A decoction of the fresh plant is also used for bathing babies to prevent lichen tropicus skin infection.

- The fresh juice from the leaves of Wedelia is used by Ayurvedic physicians in India to treat skin problems, infections, inflammations, funguses, abscesses, boils and acne.

- The fresh plant is rubbed on the gums in toothache and applied on forehead with a little oil for headache.

- This herb has been popularly used as a tincture to treat hematomas and general inflammatory processes.

- When a nerve is pinched and unable to straighten arm, pounded Wedelia is mixed with a spoon of castor oil and applied.

- The fresh plant paste combined with sesame oil, is used to treat elephantiasis

- The juices of leaves are used as dyeing agent for grey hair, and hair growth promoter in alopecia.



   Side effects and contraindications : In the Caribbean women are drinking Wedelia tea to stimulate childbirth and remove placenta afterbirth or to induce abortion. Therefore pregnant women should avoid this herb in any form.
   Wedelia chinensis trilobata is considered to be generally safe herb, with tests on rats showing lack of acute or chronic toxicity -  '' These findings indicate that the leaf extract from S. trilobata has no acute toxicity with LD50 higher than 2000 mg/kg. It is therefore, safe and can be used as traditional medicine or complementary diet without any effect on hepatic and renal function. '', '' These findings indicate that the leaf extract from S. trilobata exerts non chronic toxicity in rats and can be used safely as a traditional medicine or diet complement without any effect on hepatic and renal functions. '', '' Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of W. paludosa in doses from 100 to 4000 mg/kg did not produce significant changes in behavior, breathing, cutaneous effects, sensory nervous system responses, and gastrointestinal effects in male and female mice. These effects are observed during the experimental period (24 h). During 24 h of the experiment, no deaths occurred in any of the groups. These results showed that in single dose, there are no adverse effects of W. paludosa, indicating that the medium lethal dose (LD50) is higher than 4000 mg/kg for male and female mice. ''
 Nevertheless eating fresh parts of this herb or drinking decoctions or infusions that are very strong or in big quantities, can probably induce vomiting or act as purgative (although it is not confirmed).
    Atopic dermatitis may occur in sensitive individuals as a result of contact with the plant, people with alergies to other plants from Asteraceae family should be cautious with Wedelia.























































     Sources

'' The Materia Medica Of The Hindus '' - Udoy Chand Dutt, Thacker, Spink & Co. 1877
'' Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam '' -  Institute of Materia Medica - HANOI WHO/WPRO 1990
'' International Coalition of Traditional and Folk Medicine ; Northeast Asia part III '' - Chung Ki, World Scientific, 1998
'' Medicinal Plants in Australia Volume 4: An Antipodean Apothecary '' - Cheryll Williams, Rosenberg Publishing 2013
'' Perspective of dietetic and antioxidant medicinal plants '' - Dilip De Sarker, Manas Ranjan Saha, Subrata Saha, Notion Press 2015

Chemistry and Biology of genus Wedelia Jacq.: A reviev - Nitin Verma and R L Khosa

WEDELIA CHINENSIS (ASTERACEAE) - AN OVERVIEW OF A POTENT MEDICINAL HERB - Bano Shamama, Mazumder Avijit and Das Saumya

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS - A. Abdul Jalal, S. Selvakumar, R. Nallathambi, G. Jeevaprakash, S.L. Dheivanai, S. Senthilvelan

EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID-RICH FRACTION FROM THE WHOLE PLANT OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS - PAVITHRA S, MANIBALA J, RAMACHANDRAN J

Topical anti-inflammatory phytomedicine based on Sphagneticola trilobata dried extracts - Giovana Fucina, Lilian Funsch Rocha, Gislaine Francieli de Silva and other

Wound healing activity of ent-kaura-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid isolated from Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves. - Balekar, Neelam; Nakpheng, Titpawan; Katkam, Nadpi Gangadhar; Srichana, Teerapol

Wound-healing potential of grandiflorenic acid isolated from Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves - Neelam Balekar, Titpawan Nakpheng, and Teerapol Srichana

Antibacterial activity of flower heads of Wedelia trilobata (L) A.S. Hitch - Rajalakshmi Shankar, Toji Thomas

Essential oil composition of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski from India - Verma, Ram S. ;  Padalia, Rajendra C. ; Chauhan, Amit; Sundaresan, Velusamy

Chronic Toxicity of Leaf Extract from Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski - Areeya Suchantabud, Teeraporn Katisart, and Chusri Talubmook

Acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) pruski in rats - Areeya Suchantabud, Teeraporn Katisart and Chusri Talubmook

Chemical Constituents from Sphagneticola trilobata - Ren H, Dong LM, Zhou ZY,  Xu QL, Tan JW

Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic flower extract of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch - J. Chethan, K. K. Sampath Kumara, S. R. Niranjana and H. S. Prakash

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SPHAGNETICOLA TRILOBATA (L.) PRUSKI, AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI - KUMUDINI INDIRA TOPPO, SHUBHA GUPTA, DEEPAK KARKUN, SHIRISH AGRWAL AND ANIL KUMAR

DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARTIZED DRY EXTRACT OF Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) PRUSKI - FUCINA, G., QUINTÃO, N.L.M., BRESOLIN, T.M.B., CECHINEL FILHO, V., LUCINDA SILVA, R.M.

Aqueous extracts of Sphagneticola trilobata attenuates streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia in rat models by modulating oxidative stress parameters - IJ Kade, NBV Barbosa, EO Ibukun, AP Igbakin, CW Nogueira, JBT Rocha

Study on the chemical composition and extraction technology optimization of essential oil from Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc - D Li, Z Liang, M Guo, J Zhou, X Yang, J Xu

In vitro biological investigations of chloroform extract of Wedelia trilobata leaves - Musarrat Sabnam

PURIFICATION AND FRACTIONAL ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA
TRILOBATA POSSESSING APOPTOTIC AND ANTI-LEUKEMIC ACTIVITY. - Uday Venkatesh, Chethan Javarasetty and Satish Kumar Murari

Antimicrobial Diterpenoids of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc - Shi-Fei Li, Jia-Yin Ding, Ya-Ting Li, Xiao-Jiang Hao and Shun-Lin Li

In vitro stimulatory effect of grandiflorenic acid isolated from Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves on L929 fibroblast cells - Neelam Balekar, Titpawan Nakpheng and Teerapol Srichana

Antimicrobial, antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and phytochemical screening of water extract of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. Govindappa M., Naga Sravya S., Poojashri M. N., Sadananda T. S., Chandrappa C. P., Gustavo Santoyo, Sharanappa P. and Anil Kumar N. V

Eudesmanolides from Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. as Potential Inducers of Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance - Yating Li, Xiaojiang Hao, Shifei Li, Hongping He, Xiaohui Yan, Yongdui Chen, Jiahong Dong, Zhongkai Zhang, and Shunlin Li

Evaluation of the wound healing potential of Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves. - Balekar N1, Katkam NG, Nakpheng T, Jehtae K, Srichana T

Methanolic Extract of Wedelia trilobata in Antiproliferation and Apoptotic Activity - Uday Venkatesh, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Chethan Javarashetty, Shankar Jayarama and Satish Kumar Murari

Allelopathic potential of Wedelia trilobata L.: effects on germination, growth and physiological parameters of rice - Chengrong Nie, Shiming Luo, Rensen Zeng, Meihua Mo, Huashou Li and Chuxia Lin

Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil - M.Trojan-Rodrigues, T.L.S.Alves, G.L.G.Soares, M.R.Ritter

Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Wedelia trilobata(L.) Hitchc - LIN Bi-fen, HUANG Zhi-jian

Phenolic Compounds from Wedelia trilobata(L.) Hitchc. - REN Hui; XU Qiao-lin; DONG Li-mei; ZHOU Zhong-yu; TAN Jian-wen

Wedelia chinensis (Asteraceae)- An Overview Of A Potent Medicinal Herb - Irshad Nomani, Avijit Mazumder, G.S Chakraborthy

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS - G. Mishra, P. Singh, V. K. Garg, N. Parvez, S. Yadav, N. Hwisa, K. I.Molvi, S. M. Al-Sharif, B. Z. Awen and R. L. Khosa

Herbal Extract of Wedelia chinensis Attenuates Androgen Receptor Activity and Orthotopic Growth of Prostate Cancer in Nude Mice - Chin-Hsien Tsai, Feng-Min Lin, Yu-Chih Yang, Ming-Ting Lee, Tai-Lung Cha, Guan-James Wu, Shih-Chuan Hsieh and Pei-Wen Hsiao

Compounds from Wedelia chinensis synergistically suppress androgen activity and growth in prostate cancer cells - Feng-Min Lin, Li-Ru Chen, En-Hau Lin, Ferng-Chun Ke, Hsin-Yi Chen, Meng-Jen Tsai, Pei-Wen Hsiao

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF THE PLANT WEDELIA CHINENSIS (OSBECK) MERR. - R. Mohan Kumar, V. Suresh, S. V. Rajesh, N. Senthil Kumar, G. Arunachalam

Evaluation of Cardiotonic Activity of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Leaves - Swathi Sree Karumuri, Venkata Naveen Kasagana

Two new kaurane-type diterpenoids from Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr - Cancan Cai, Yu Zhang, Dongqiong Yang, Xiaojiang Hao & Shunlin Li

Evaluation of Three Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh for Antimicrobial Properties - Tasnuva Sharmin1, Md. Shahidur Rahman, Md. Al Hasan Opu and Md. Amran Hossain

Dietary Uptake of Wedelia chinensis Extract Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice - Yuh-Ting Huang, Chih-Chun Wen, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Wen-Ching Huang, Li-Ting Huang, WenChing Lin, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Shu-Hui Lin, Pei-Wen Hsiao, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Ning-Sun Yang

Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Wedelia Chinensis on Cold Immobilization Stress Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats - Nitin Verma, R. L. Khosa

Effects of Methanol Extract of Wedelia chinensis Osbeck (Asteraceae) Leaves against Pathogenic Bacteria with Emphasise on Bacillus cereus - I. DARAH, S. H. LIM AND K. NITHIANANTHAM

Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia chinensis leaves - Rehana banu H. and N. Nagarajan

Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) in vitro and in vivo Lung Cancer Bearing C57BL/6 Mice - A Manjamalai, VM Berlin Grace

Chemotherapeutic Effect of Essential Oil of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) on Inducing Apoptosis, Suppressing Angiogenesis and Lung Metastasis in C57BL/6 Mice Model - Arumugam Manjamalai and Berlin Grace

Wedelia chinenis (Asteraceae) - An overview - Sameksha Koul, A Pandurangan, RL Khosa

STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF WEDELIA CHINENSIS (OSBECK) AGAINST MICROBES AND INFLAMMATION - A.MANJAMALAI, G.J. JIFLIN  and V.M. BERLIN GRACE

Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Evaluation of Leaf Extracts of Wedelia Chinensis - Anita Kumari, Sunita Bhatnagar

Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of Wedelia chinensis leaf extracts - Merina Paul Das, L. Jeyanthi Rebecca and S. Sharmila

Ethyl acetate extract of Wedelia chinensis inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage in PC12 cells and D-galactose-induced neuronal cell loss in mice - Wea-Lung Lin, Shao-Ming Wang, Ying-Jui Ho, Hsing-Chun Kuo, Yean-Jang Lee and Tsui-Hwa Tseng

Development of a standardized and effect-optimized herbal extract of Wedelia chinensis for prostate cancer. - Tsai, Chin-Hsien; Tzeng, Sheue-Fen; Hsieh, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Jui; Chen, Yet-Ran

Hepatoprotective Effects of Taiwan Folk Medicine: Wedelia chinensis on Three Hepatotoxin-induced Hepatotoxicity - Song-chow Lin, Chung-ching Lin, Yun-ho Lin, Shyh-jong Shyuu 

Triterpenoids principle of Wedelia calendulacea attenuated diethynitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma via down-regulating oxidative stress, inflammation and pathology via NF-kB pathway - Amita Verma, Deepika Singh, Firoz Anwar, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Fahad Al-Abbasi, Vikas Kumar

In vitro Antioxidant profile of Wedelia calandulaceae leaves - Manjir Sarma Kataki, Md. Zaki Ahmad, Deepak Awasthi, Bhupender Tomar, Prahlad Mehra, Ravi Shankar Yadav, Prakash Rajak 

Hepatoprotective Activity of Wedelia calendulacea L. Against Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats - Murugaian, V. Ramamurthy and N. Karmegam

Antioxidant mediated defense role of Wedelia calendulacea herbal extract against CCl4 induced toxic hepatitis - S. Carmel Punitha and M.Rajasekaran

Chemical and pharmacological examination of antinociceptive constituents of Wedelia paludosa - Luciana C. Block, Adair R. S. Santos, Marcia Maria de Souza, Christiano Sheidt

Acute and subacute toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extract from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae) in mice - Cristiani Bürger, Doris Raquel Fischer, Dórys Angela Cordenunzzi, Anna Paula de Borba Batschauer, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Adair Roberto dos Santos Soares

Effect of Wedelia paludosa (Asteraceae) on Brain Neurotransmitters and Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase, Following Cold Immobilization Stress - Venkata Naveen Kasagana, Swathi Sree Karumuri

Protective effect of crude extract from Wedelia paludosa (Asteraceae) on the hepatotoxicity inducedby paracetamol in mice - Flavia Carla Meotti, Juliana Martins Rosa, Patrícia S. Brocardo, Daniela Balz, Ana Paula Waltrick, Angelize Bagio, Eduardo Comeli Goulart, Alcir Luiz Dafre, Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues and Adair R. S. Santos

Seasonal Variation of Kaurenoic Acid, a Hypoglycemic Diterpene Present in Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae) - Louisiane Faccio V. Bresciania, Rosendo Augusto Yunes, Cristiani Bürger, Luis Eduardo De Oliveira, Kauê Leal Bóf, Valdir Cechinel-Filho

Phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of different parts of Wedelia paludosa DC. (Compositae). - Block LC1, Scheidt C, Quintão NL, Santos AR, Cechinel-Filho V

Integrative Approach to Analyze Biodiversityand Anti-Inflammatory Bioactivity of Wedelia Medicinal Plants - Wen-Ching Lin, Chih-Chun Wen, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Pei-Wen Hsiao, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Ching-I Peng, Ning-Sun Yang

Comparative Study of Phytochemical Constituents in Flower of Wedelia trilobata, Achyranthes aspera and Chrysanthemum from Durg District of Chhattisgarh, India - Nisreen Husain and Anil Kumar

Is a new invasive herb emerging? Molecular confirmation and preliminary evaluation of natural hybridization between the invasive Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae) and its native congener S. calendulacea in South China - Wei WuRen-Chao ZhouGuang-Yan NiHao ShenXue-Jun Ge

Volatile Constituents of Two Wedelia Species - A. A. Craveiro , F. J.A. Matos , J. W. Alencar , M. I.L. Machado , A. Krush  & M. G.V. Silva

https://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Special-Pages/plant-detail.aspx?id=3350
http://www.tramil.net/en/plant/wedelia-trilobata
https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/56714
http://www.plantsjournal.com/archives/2015/vol3issue5/PartC/3-5-15.pdf
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131025113920.htm
http://ecologicalsolutions-si.com/files/75919380.pdf
https://www.scribd.com/document/228393925/A-spectroscopic-approach-to-the-pharmacognosy-of-Wedelia-calendulacea-and-Eclipta-alba
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3AENd_xVCw
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Sphagneticola+calendulacea

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