poniedziałek, 23 października 2017

Gonostegia hirta / Pouzolzia hirta - Oik, Nuo Mi Tuan, Climbing Nettle

Polska wersja


   Gonostegia hirta, almost equally often called Pouzolzia hirta, is a perrenial undershrub, whose thin stems although stiff and upright when young, are starting to act as vine, crawling or climbing as they grow longer. It grows in mainly moutanious, tropical or subtropical regions of South-East Asia, from Himalaya through China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines to Japan and north of Australia. It is highly esteemed as a leafy vegetable and a root crop by many idigenous comunities, some of which are also using the plant and it's tuberous roots as herbal medicine. But even in countries of it's origin Gonostegia hirta is mainly unknown, and usually only harvested from wild by viligers for their own use. It also never appeared as a herbal remedy in mainstream herbalism of any country. And even though it plays it's modest role in Traditional Chinese Medicine, it seems to have only local popularity as a medicinal herb in China, just like the green dumplings that have it's color thanks to G. hirta content. The whole plant is also used as a fodder.
   I think it is a real shame that such an easy to grow and harvest, tasty and healty vegetable, is such unknown and underutilized crop. And one of the evidence for it's total lack of existence in western world of agriculture, herbalism, botany or sheer gardening, is it's lack of common name in english. Few translators have just strugling to translate it's name while translating chinese books, and the effect is bizzare - Polished Glutinous Rice, Glutinous Rice Vine, Glutinousmass. Because of it's close relation to Nettles, similar usefulness, and even taste, I would rather suggest to called it something like - Climbing Nettle or Nettle Vine (but it doesn't sting as Stinging Nettle does).
   Here are common names of Gonostegia hirta used in other languages : Nuo Mi Tuan, Nuomiteng, Man Qu Ma (China), Tsurumao, Turu-mao (Japan), Ashok, Chiplay, Memynsleh, Kanchvalya, Thezouts, Oyik, Oik, Oyic, Tukri, Chifaljari, Atenyaa (India) Chirchira, Bala Pata (Bengali), Kurand (Punjabi), Sial Kotahi (Assamese), Sumlouthe (Bodo), Aaichuli, Chiple Ghaans, Chiple Lahari (Nepal), Chol, Gogo (Papua New Guinea), Thuoc doi long, Bo mam long, Bo mam la doi, Un Tho (Vietnam), Taux Eeppid, Taux Ngia, Taux Ngia Poeh (Myanmar).
   Gonostegia hirta and Pouzolzia hirta are both almost equaly popular latin names for this plant in current use, but sometimes Memorialis hirta is still contemporarily used in China. It's other botanical synonymes like Pouzolzia quiqenervis, Urtica hirta and Driessenia sinensis, are nowadays out of use.


    Gonostegia hirta is perrenial but short lived tropical plant, that in some sub-tropical regions with cold winters appears as a annual herb. It is low growing groundcover plant, with young stems usually heading upright. But as those stems grow older and longer it will either climb or creep, and they can reach over 2 m lenght. It is therefore a good vegetable to grow in hanging baskets.
   This plant belongs to Urticaceae family, and it also has short hairs/stings like it's cousin Stinging Nettle, but unlike SN it is harmless. Only its old leaves have soft stings, that could barely slightly tingle your soft lips, but it usually cannot be sensed by your skin, tongue and mouth. Gonostegia hirta's leaves can be from 4 to 8cm long, and it can be bit obtuse or more lanceolate in shape. This plant can be monoecious or dioecious.
   It grows mainly in moutanious regions, in grasslands,  edges of forests, thickets and at brinks of riverbeds. Most botanists are saying that G. hirta can be found at high elevations up to 1600m, but I myself have found it to thrive at 2260m height Mount Santo Tomas (near Baguio, the Philippines), and in China it was occasionally noted at 2700m . It grows best in humid conditions in compost soil in half-shade. But can be also found on drier, poor soils and in very sunny places, and those harsh conditions are usually stimulating better growth of its tuberous root part. This plant can be propagated through seeds, cutings or with layering technique, which is very easy, as Gonostegia is quickly growing roots at the nodes, often even without touching the ground.
   For consuption of Gonostegia hirta as a fresh vegetable it is the best to pick only tops of the stems. It is very easy, as it usually points up and unlike old taugh stems, young tops are easy to just snap. Plus it is very tender, juicy, and usually immaculately clean, so you don't need to wash it and can eat it straight away. Old leaves are not very taugh but it is bit dry compare to juicy young one. Old leaves are good to be cooked or dried for use as in powdered form or to make infusions. But if you want to harvest whole old stems instead of picking seperate leaves, you might need to use some sharp tool.
   The tuberous part of roots of Pouzolzia hirta is usually not bigger than a finger. It can be dig out from the plants that are nearly one year old or older. The best time for it is during the season when the plants growth is slowing down, at begining of winter or dry season.

               CULINARY USES

     The leaves or whole tops of Gonostegia hirta are eaten raw or cooked. Fresh, young leaves and stems are tender, bit crispy, has muscilagous sap and mild, very pleasant taste, which makes it to combine well with literarily any food. Old leaves can be bit tough and have tiny stinging hairs, that can cause harmless tingling if touched with lips, but it usually cant be felt in mouth or on tongue. It is not as god for use in salads or sandwitches as tender young leaves, but it is still good for cooking, for example in soups. In Himalayan regions of India, young leaves and stems of G. hirta are given to small children and lactating mothers to improve appetite and lactation, and for elders as a good energy source. It is very nutritious, rich in vitamins and minerals, and highly caloric compared to other leafy vegetables.
   The tuberous roots of this plant are eaten raw, cooked or roasted. It is also dried, powderized and mixed with wheat and maize flours to make traditionall chapatti in Uttaranchal, India.
  In some regions of China the stems and leaves of Gonostegia hirta are used in form of paste or powder to make traditional green dumplings.


   In Assam and western Himalaya region of India, the tuberous roots of Gonostegia hirta are mashed into pasted and used for hair wash, as a shampoo and hair tonic, that remove dandruff and prevent hair fall. The leaves are sometimes used in the same way.

            MEDICINAL USES

   Gonostegia hirta is a 'neverheardof' herb not only in the western world, but also in mainstream herbalism of countries of South-East Asia in which it grows. It's medicinal uses are only scarcely recorded in China by Traditional Chinese Medicine scholars and practitioners, and by ethnobotanists reserching indigenous healing traditions in Nepal, Punjab, Himalayan regions of India and Assam. And fitopharmacological studies on that plant are even more scarce.

   In Traditional Chinese Medicine Gonostegia hirta is called Nuo Mi Tuan, and is described as cooling, depurative, febrifuge, diuretic, invigorating spleen, reducing swelling, dissipating stasis and arresting bleeding.
   It is used fresh or sundired. Decoction are made from the whole plant with roots (10-30g dried or double if fresh), and are used to treat pyogenic infections, boils, carbuncle, abscesses (mammary abscesses), acute mastitis, coughing up blood, hematemesis, hemorrhages caused by trauma, dysentery, dyspepsia, malnutritional stagnation and infantile malnutrition, abdominal cramps in females (algomenorrhea), leukorrhea, edema, difficulty in urination, scrofula, injuries from falls, bone dislocations and fractures.
   It is also used in combinations with other herbs in many Traditional Chinese Medicine formulas, like for cleansing blood, removing heat, treating chronic appendicitis or improving chemicotherapy digestive tract reaction.
   In Himalayan regions of India, tender leaves of Gonostegia hirta are given to breastfeeding mothers to improve lactation and to small children to improve appetite, and to elders to restore energy. The roots are eaten to ease constipation and expell the worms, and mashed it is plaster on place of broken bones. The root juice is taken for constipation and burning sensation during urination.
   In Punjab if the leaves are not available then the roots of the plant are pounded into paste which is applied and tied over abscesses with a muslin cloth to drain them.
   In Assam, the leaves or roots paste is applied on bone fractures, cuts, wounds and bruises. Leaf and stem are used as lactagogue. The leaves are eaten to cure severe cough and sore throat, crushed leaves are applied on insects stings, ulcers, ringworm, and other skin diseases. An infusions of the whole plant are given to chilrden suffering atrophy and indigestion. Leaf extract is used in the treatment of cancer [1].
   In Nepal, dislocated bone is treated with Ampelocissus rugosa and Gonostegia hirta, paste of whole plant made from equal amount of A. rugosa and G. hirta is applied as a plaster supported by wood to
set the dislocated bone. Juice of the root, about 6 teaspoons at interval of 4 hours, is given to treat typhoid. Paste of root is applied to relieve muscular swellings.

   The whole plant of Gonostegia hirta contain : gums and muscilages, phenolics, tannins, phlobatannins, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin and their derivatives), glycosides, saponins, terpenoids (friedelin, epifriedelanol, β-amyrin, α-amyrin, lupeol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, ) and sterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol). Also α-tocopherol (type of vitamin E - 43.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (22.6 mg/100 g) and vitamin A (22.1 mg/100 g).
    Its leaves are rich in iron (21.99ppm - parts per million), zinc (9,571ppm), molybdenum (5.400ppm), magnesium (3.266ppm), manganese (3.00ppm) and copper (0.487ppm). The total energy value of the leaves of Gonostegia hirta is 258.69 kcal/100g, which makes it highly caloric leafy vegetable suitable for the treatment of obesity. It contain : carbohydrates (48.35%), crude fiber (17.6%), crude proteins (14.3%) and crude lipids (0.98%).
   The tuberous roots of Gonostegia hirta are rich in nutrients such as crude protein, carbohydrate and crude fiber. It contain β-carotene, vitamin C, phenolics, tannins and are rich in minerals : sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, iron, manganese, copper and zinc.


'' Encyclopedic Reference of Traditional Chinese Medicine '' - Chen Anmin, Ma Yingfu, Gao Yuan, Gao Zhemin, Springer Science & Business Media 2013
'' CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants '' - Umberto Quattrocchi, CRC Press 2016

Medico-ethnobotany of Magar Community in Salija VDC of Parbat District, Central Nepal - Shubhechchha Thapa


Evaluation of Nutritive, Antioxidant and Mineral Composition in Wild Edible Rhizomes of Pouzolzia hirta Linn. - K. Prasad, Deepak Chandra and G. Bisht

Evaluation of Nutritional Potential of Five Unexplored Wild Edible Food Plants from Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot Region (India) - Pallabi Kalita, Hui Tag, H. N. Sarma, A. K. Das.


Study on flavonoid chemical constituents contained in Memorialis hirta - Lei J, Xiao Y, Wang W, Xi Z, Liu M, Ran J, Huang J.

Chemical constituents of Memorialis hirta - LEI Jun, XIAO Yun-chuan, LIU Miao, RAN Jian, HUANG Jing

Bioactive and Nutraceutical Compound Manipulation from the Leaves of Some Wild Edible Medicinal Plants in Chirang District of Assam, India. - Jahnovi Brahma and Dhananjoy Narzary
Phytochemical Screening of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants - Sweta Thakur and MC Sidhu

Crop Diversity in Traditional Jhum Cultivated Land Practiced by Ethnic Nocte and Wancho of Eastern Himalaya - S.I. Bhuyan, T. Teyang

Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India - Jahangeer A Bhat, Munesh Kumar, Rainer W Bussmann

Diversity of Medicinal Plants Used By Adi Community In and Around Area of D’ Ering Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India - Karnan Jeyaprakash, Yanung Jamoh Lego, Tamin Payum, Suriliandi Rathinave and Kaliyamoorthy Jayakumar

Medicinal plants used by different tribes of Cachar district, Assam - Ajit Kumar Das, BK Dutta, GD Sharma

Traditional uses of medicinal plants of Pauri Garhwal, Uttrakhand - Nazir A. Pala, A. K. Negi, N. P. Todaria

Ethnobotany of the Galo community of Arunachal Pradesh, India - Omem Ratan, Rajiv Mili and Hui Tag

Ethno-Medicinal Practices among the Limbu Community in Limbuwan, Eastern Nepal - Dil Kumar Limbu and Basanta Kumar Rai

Ethnomedicinal plants used by people of Golghat District, Assam, India - J. Barukial, J. N. Sarmah

Ethnomedicinal plants used by the mising tribe of Dhemaji District of Assam, India - Victor Singh Ayam, Pradip Doley and Ch. B.Singh

Ethnobotanical note on folk-lore remedies of Baglung District, Nepal - Narayan P. Manandhar

The indigenous knowledge of The Hani group: The Utilisation and Conservation of Natural Forest Resources at Y Ty Commune, Bat Xat District, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam - Ngoc Anh LUU DAM, Huong Van BUI and Yoshinori SUMIMURA

Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India - Chandra Prakash Kala

Ethnomedicinal plants used by local inhabitants of Jakholi block, Rudraprayag district, western Himalaya, India - Ankit Singh, Mohan C. Nautiyal, Ripu M. Kunwar and Rainer W. Bussmann


środa, 20 września 2017

Medinilla magnifica, Medinilla pendula, Medinilla speciosa and closely related species

Polska wersja


   Medinilla is a genus of tropical bushes, of which some can also climb on trees like vines, or entirely grow on trees. But not as a parasite, they just use convenient spaces, like between branches, where some moss grow or some dead leaves gathered, retaining some moisture n compost. Most of Medinillas originate from South-East Asia, but there are some species discovered in Africa and North Australia.
   Many of Medinilla species create characteristic clusters of flowers followed by pink berries, that are turning black when ripe. Those flower and berries, are usually so beautiful, that some of the species with the most impressive flower clusters have been taken into cultivation for ornamental purposes. The most robust and spectacular species of those is Medinilla magnifica. And that is why it is the most popular Medinilla, that nowadays can be found in cultivation all around the world. Few other species like Medinilla pendula, Medinilla speciosa and Medinilla cummingii, although less famous are also cultivated in tropical gardens and as a houseplants in countries with cold winters.
   Despite the fact that those cultivated species of Medinilla mentioned here, bears clusters of berries that reminds grapes and so are often called Asian Grapes. Most of those plants owners never heard that the berries are edible. And those very few that knows it, would never thought that Medinillas leaves, flowers, flower buds and flower and fruit steems are edible too. Berries are very sweet and soft when ripe, other parts including leaves are crunchy and sour, which makes Medinilla very interesting leafy vegetable, and one of the most unutilized ever.
   Even in the Philippines, from where M. magnifica, M. pendula and many other Medinilla species originate, and where nowadays those plants are more common in ornamental gardens than in wild. Most of the people knows those plants only for it's charming beauty, only some knows that it's berries are edible, very few (mostly from indigenous tribes living in remote mountains) knows that Medinilla leaves are edible, and it's medicinal values are mostly never hear of.
   It is very hard to find any mentioning about edibility or any medicinal uses of Medinillas in any literature, or meet anyone that could tell you something about it. But I was very lucky. One day my friend told me that his plant has not only edible fruits, but also edible, nicely sour leaves. For my inquiry he said that it is called Gulingbanban in Mountain Province (Cordillera, the Philippines), and it's leaves are used for cooking instead of Kalamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa, sour citrus very popular in Philippines, kinda tiny lime), or Tamarind (unripe fruit or fresh leaves are commonly used for it's sourness in South-East Asia). I fell in love in Medinilla leaves since the first bite. So nicely sour, refreshing and crunchy. And it is not only sour leafy vegetable (only very fev leafy veggies are sour at all), but it is sour leafy perrenial vegetable. And perrenial, leafy, all-year-round-to-pick vegs allways get my serious attention, esspecially when it is proven to be easy in cultivation. Yes, Medinnilla is wonderful, beautiful plant, to which so many people around the world has easy access, but so few know about how tasty and healthy it's leaves, fruits and flowers are. - it's got to be changed.
   Since that very first bite of Medinilla leaf, I also has strong feeling that it has to have some signifficant health improving actions. So I was digging a lot, but found a little, and even my biggest authorities on Philippines vegies and herbs, couldn't give me any info on the subject. And they mostly beeing shocked to hear that Medinillas leaves are edible. But those scraps of informations that I've managed to found, about traditional medicinal uses of Medinillas. And my own empiric experiencies, can at least give you some rough idea on those plants health benefits. And I hope that this article will inspire and encourage some scientists, to do pharmacological or entobotanical studies on Medinillas, as at at the moment there is only few made.

   When it comes to botanical clasiffication of Medinillas there is a huge mess. There are dozens of unidentified species, as new Medinillas are being discovered all the time in remote wild jungles of Indonesia and the Philippines. Some of which was recorded in just one location, or only one specimen was ever found. Apparently closely related Medinilla species easily crosspolinate, creating new hybrids in wild, but also in cultivation, where commercial growers are very keen to produce new cultivars (for example with different shade of flowers or more showy one).
   But even when it comes to those more common Medinilla species, there is not enough of good botanical documentation, and informations from different sourcess contradict itself. But I can assure you that no matter the giving scientific name, at least any Medinilla species that looks very similar to those showed below, are safe to eat and it tastes all the same. In fact there is no reported poisonings by any species of Medinilla, and only leaves of few species (climbing bushy species) from those that I have tried (40+), was without nice sour taste.

   Medinilla magnifica - Rose Grape, Philippine Orchid Tree (English), Hong Wei Suan Jiao Gan (China)

   Medinilla pendula - Agubangbang, Balanban, Ballangbang, Gubangbang (Igorot - Philippines)

          Medinilla speciosa - Showy Asian Grapes (English), Parijoto (Indonesia)

      Gulingbanban - Medinilla sp.     sp. - means it is so far unidentified species of Medinilla


    Medinilla magnifica, M. pendula, M. speciosa and closely related species are evergreen, tropical bushes, from dense wet forests of the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. They have epiphytic nature, which means that it often grow on trees, not beeing parasites, but useing moisture and organic material that is gathering in junctions of tree branches. It is showing that those Medinillas just like Orchids, can survive for long time doing well on very little soil and moisture (Medinilla magnifica is sometimes even called Philippine Orchid, while Medinilla myriantha - Malaysian Orchid). But for it's best growth it should be planted in rich, compost, slightly acidic or neutral, moist but well drained soil. But if your plants have too much nutrients in soil and lots of water, it might grow great, but you might not see many flowers. I that case, keepeng it dry for some time or prunning a bit might help to bring it to blooms. Even though it likes moist, half shaded places, it copes well with severe long term droughts and scourching sun (although sometimes yellow-brown, sun burn spots can appear on leaves).
  Although their leaves may differ a lot in shape and size, all 'Asian Grapes' type Medinilla species have the same growth habits. Instead of one main trunk, it grows many stems straight from the root base, which makes it wide spread bush (but it can be formed to have main stem and be parasol shape or other). It can reach around 2m in height and more in width (M. magnifica grows even up to 3m in height and 4m in width).
   In the Philippines, although usually some flowers appear all year round, it's flowering is most intense during dry season. And generally plants exposed more to the sun have more flowers than those in strongly shaded places. Medinillas don't like temperatures below 10'C, but for short time it can survive temperatures even near 0'C, and no heat is a treat to it. But in indoor cultivation it need to be sprayed regularlly with clean water during winter time, as heating systems are making air very dry, and that can cause leaves dropping. Medinillas are quite free from pests and diseases, but spider mites and fungus can sometimes attack its leaves, some snails likes it too. It is easy to propagate them both from woody cutings and seeds.
   Leaves of Medinilla can be gathered for culinary use at any time of year. It remains fresh for quite a good time even in high temperatures, and you can improve its freshness even more by cutting whole stems and keeping it in water (but of course it is unnecessary waste of stems if you have Medinilla plant at a 'hand reach'). It is best when young but mature (fully or nearly fully grown), as undeveloped leaves usually have no taste, while old one can be tough. Although the berries are ripe when black in colour, it can be picked when still pink if you want to have it sour.

             CULINARY USES

   Most of Medinilla species have edible fruits. Although many of those species are often called Asian Grapes, it is only similar to grapes in the way that multiple fruits grow gathered in clusters. Fruits of many of Medinillas, like Medinilla pendula, are similar in size, appearance and structure (it has multiple tiny seeds) to blueberry fruits, but some species like Medinilla magnifica, bears fruits twice or thrice as big. When fully ripe, those black Medinilla fruits are very sweet with kind of blueberry taste, and it is so soft that that you can not pick it without squeezing. That is why it can only by eaten fresh, or picked for jams. Very young fruits are quite tasteless, but as they mature they becoming sour before they get ripe. I've been told by one Filipino woman, that in such a state before they get sweet, they are eaten fresh after being dipped in vinegar. (There are Medinilla species with red or orange edible berries, some growing not in clusters but almost straight from the branch - but thats another stories.)
    Succulent flower/fruit stems can be eaten fresh and so the flower buds and open flowers, and they all are usually more sour than Medinilla's leaves but gererally taste very similar. But freshly opened flowers are exception, as they have not only Medinillas sourness, but also unique wonderfull aroma.
   Medinilla's leaves has nice, usually strongly, sour taste, which I think is great consider the fact that most of leafy vegetables has mild or bitter taste. It is usually very crispy, but for example older leaves of Medinilla magnifica might be quite tough and tart, while even old leaves of Medinilla pendula are crunchy and not very tart. It is best to be picked when fully matured but young, undeveloped leaves has usually no taste at all. It can be eaten fresh, chopped and added to salads, or used for cooking in soups, stews, stir-fries or any other meal that you want to add some sourness to. It can be also shredded and added to drinks instead of lemon.


  There is very little informations that can be found anywhere, about medicinal values of Medinilla species. Only some indigenous communities of South-East Asia and Africa have knowledge about healing properties of Medinillas, recieved from their ancestors. And there is probably much more of those traditional uses, than those that was recorded through ethnobotanic surveys. Only few pharmacological studies on those plants has been conducted in Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan and Vietnam.
   My own experience with M. magnifica, M. pendula, M. speciosa and similar looking Medinilla species, is that it's fresh, young, but fully developped leaves, tastes and feel all alike. They are sour, astringent, very revitalizing and stimulating both mentaly and physically. Although I couldn't deny my feelings, at first I was quite hesitating to call Medinilla leaves a stimulating herb. As this effect could've been just a resoult of auto-suggestion, and the feeling could be sheer excitment as eating Medinilla was then new to me. But my doubts dissapeared when I've found information that saponins and steroids has been found in leaves of Medinilla speciosa. Saponins are known for improving circulation, increasing blood flow in both brain and muscles, while steroids are usually stimulating our mind and body on a hormonal level. The leaves are also rich in vitamin C, which supress fatigue, boost immunity, has strong antioxidant, antiviral and antibacterial actions.
   Leaves, flowers, unripe fruits and flower/fruit stalks, can well improve your digestion. Unless you have problem with overacidity in stomach, then of course sour Medinilla parts should be avoided, and only sweet fully ripe fruits should be eaten.
   I also have been told that crushed unripe fruits soothe pain and swellings when rubbed on ant bites.

   Below are all the information that I have managed to find about medicinal uses of Medinillas, including species that are not main subject of this article, but are far relatives of Asian Grapes.

   Medinilla pendula - in Cordillera region in the Philippines, the leaves are eaten, or leaves decoctions are drunk as a treatment for cough, colds and flu. Tests has proved antioxidant activity of leaves of M. pendula (ethanolic leaf extract DPPH radical scavenging activity IC50  255.363µg/ml). The fruits contain flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, saponins and polyphenols.

   Medinilla speciosa - in Indonesia flowers are directly consumed for strengthening embryo. In Sabah, Malaysia, it is belived that eating the fruits might protect person from eyes diseases. Phytochemical test showed that the fruit contain flavonoid and saponin compound. Ethanolic extract of Medinilla speciosa fruit exhibited moderate cytotocicity on breast cancer T47D cell lines (with IC50 value was 614,50 µg/ml and yield the decrease of cell viability at higher concentration), which suggest that it can be used as chemoprevention agent.
  Leaves contains the saponin (1,1%), tannin, flavonoid, glycoside, steroid, and alkaloid compounds. Research has proved antibacterial action of M. speciosa leaves, with it's methanol extract indicating to be more efective against Gram positive bacteria, than Gram negative bacteria, (The Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of methanol extract against Escherichia coli is 50 mg/ml, whereas against Staphylococcus aureus is 12,5 mg/ml.).

   Medinilla magnifica -  leaves and stems contain : the simple phenols, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids), phloroglucinol, polyphenol oxydase, ellagitannins, tannins - hydrolysable (a lot) and (a little) condensed tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids.
   Medinilla magnifica plant extract showed inhibition of growth and proliferation of trypomastigote forms of protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei (at IC50  2.25 μg/mL), which cause Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT).

   Medinilla radicans - the Indonesians eat the leaves with bit of salt to remove blood from feaces, probably because it's content of tanins, which are stiptic.

   Medinilla hasselti - in Malaysia the leaves are used externally to mitigate headaches

   Medinilla mirabilis -  in West tropical Africa (Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon), the leaves are used for pulmonary troubles. The leaves, combined with melegueta pepper (Aframomum melegueta), are used as a cough medicine. Heated leaves are applied to cicatrize wounds.

   Medinilla crassifolia - in Indonesia crushed leaves are applied as poultice on fresh wounds to stop bleeding, leaves smashed into paste are applied on forehead to relief headache.

  Medinilla crassinerivia - leaves are chewed to allow conception to take place, plant used to treat nose cancer, chewed for application to ulcers

  Medinilla assamica - applied to sores, boils, wounds

  Medinilla corallina - in Borneo fruits and leaves decoctions are drunk for gonorrhea.

  Medinilla septentrionalis - in Vietnam, the leaves and young shoots are used for diarrhea treatment by ethnic minorities. The results of tests showed that M. septentrionalis ethanolic extract had
highly antibacterial activity, particularly to diarrhea relating bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio spp. and Escherichia coli. The M. septentrionalis ethanolic extract also effectively prevented enteropooling, reduced either time of charcoal transit in small intestine or defecation in castor oil-induced mice at 63 mg kg–1 body weight. In addition, no significant toxicity signs and mortality were observed on mice after treating the plant extract up to doses of 10000 mg
kg–1 body weight. The preliminary phytochemical screening of M. septentrionalis ethanolic extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and steroids.

  Medinilla hypericifolia - in North Sumatra, Indonesia, the leaf is used for cancer

  Medinilla venosa - in Davao, the Philippines, the leaf is used for medicine purposes, specifically in maintaining strong and clean teeth.

  Medinilla teysmanni - leaves juice squeezed onto tropical ulcers

  Medinilla sp. - local name Lunu Aira - in Papua New Guinea, the leaves are cut into pieces and cooked with pig meat and eaten as a treatment for anemia


'' Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific '' - Christophe Wiart, CRC Press 2006
'' CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants '' - Umberto Quattrocchi, CRC Press 2016

Histochemical and pharmacological properties of Philippine rare plant species Medinilla magnifica Lindl. - Edgar Gary R. Vasallo, Jr.

The ethnobotany of medicinal plants in supporting the family health in Turgo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia - MAIZER SAID NAHDI, IKA NUGRAHENI ARI MARTIWI, DISCA CAHYARI ARSYAH

Ethno–botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines - Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo

Evaluation of DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Selected Folkloric Medicinal Plants in Tinoc, Ifugao, Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines - Galvez, M. A. C

Screening North American plant extracts in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei for discovery of new antitrypanosomal drug leads - Surendra Jain, Melissa Jacob, Larry Walker and Babu Tekwani

Sitotoksisitas in vitro ekstrak etanolik buah parijoto (Medinilla speciosa, reinw.ex bl.) terhadap sel kanker payudara T47D - Iin Tussanti, Andrew Johan, Kisdjamiatun

Anti-Diarrheal Evaluation of Medinilla septentrionalis Pham Minh Nhut, Nguyen Xuan Minh Ai, Dang Thi Phuong Thao

The ethnomedicine of the Batak Karo people of Merdeka  sub-district, North Sumatra, Indonesia - Endang Christine Purba, Nisyawati, Marina Silalahi 

Ethnobotanical Investigation of Matigsalug Ethnic Group in Sitio Patag, Brgy. DatuSalumay, Marilog District, Davao City

KERALA - Ajesh T.P and R. Kumuthakalavalli

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea - Ronald Y Jorim, Seva Korape, Wauwa Legu, Michael Koch, Louis R Barrows, Teatulohi K Matainahoand Prem P Rai

AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN PARIJOTO (Medinilla speciosa) TERHADAP Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus - Inge Octaviani


Determination of the cytotoxic and root growth inhibiting activity of the crude extract
from the leaves of Medinilla magnifica Lindl (kapa-kapa). - Michelle Angeli B. Abadilla, Rotchelle Joy T. Collado, Rachelle Joy T. Tuazon, Angelita S. Rodriguez

Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Wild Fruits in Benguet, Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines - Racquel Barcelo