środa, 22 października 2014

Ptelea trifoliata - Hop Tree, Wafer Ash

Polska wersja

        PLANT PROFILE

    Ptelea trifoliata is a bush or small tree native to eastern part of North America. It have long tradiction of medicinal use and even being esteemed as sacred by Menomini tribe. Although root bark of this plant is praised by some medics as a supreme tonic, comparable to quinine, it is today not popular in its homeland and nearly unknown as a herb anywhere else. In early 19th century its popularity in USA as a great respiratory drug, uplifted its prices so high, that later it become a bit forgoten. Ptelea's fruits are used as a hop substitute in brewery, hence its common name Hop Tree, and was growing for this purpose in certain parts of Russia. Other common names of this plant are : Wafer Ash, Tree Trefoil, Stinking Ash, Quinine Tree and Shrubby Trefoil. It is often planted in its homeland as well as in Europe, for its ornamental purposes, and it is more about its samasara kind of a fruits than about its flowers. There are also highly attractive cultivars with (all year round, untill fall ) golden leaves - Ptelea trifoliata var. aurea and some variegated forms. Whole plant have yields strong smell when brushed, it have a citrusy note ( it is far relative of citruses ) and a hint of hops, but many people found this fragnance unpleasant. Some people found even smell of flowers to be too intense, other praise it, comparing it to that of an orange and honeysuckle flowers.



      CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING

   Ptelea trifoliata is slow growing bush that can become small tree, up to 8m high. It can be pruned to sustain as a dense bush. Naturally it ussually appear in woodlands or on brinks of forests, so it prefer semi-shade but can also tolerate full shade or full sun. It like wet but not to boggy soils. It is said to tolerate any pH of soil. It can stand cold temperatures even to -30'C. Tiny, but very fragnant, typical citrusy flowers gathered in clusters appear in early summer, followed by small samasara, wafer fruits in late summer. Those fruits ussually lasts on trees till spring. Bark and root bark should be colected after fruit is ripe but before the leaves begin to fade. Leaves should be collected in late summer, flowers and fruits when fully developped. In sunny days, skin protection is highly advised while dealing with this plant, just like with Rue and some citrus plants, as direct contact might couse photosensitivity and result with the same dermatisis.


         CULINARY USES

   Hop Tree is most common name for this plant. Its samsara kind of a fruits are used as a hop substitute for brewing beers and make a nice herbal tea that support digestion and revitalised body. It is also added when making bread to yeast to make it rise quicker.



        MEDICINAL USES

   North American Indian tribe, Menomini praised Ptelea trifoliata as a sacred plant, its bark and root bark are used as a panacea and is added to other herbs to increase their effectivness. It is said to be excellent tonic, of which cold infusions not iritate mucus membranes, like most of tonics do and sooth them when their are iritated. Root bark was mostly used part of Ptelea trifoliata in Eclectic herbalism and tinctures are said to be the most effective. There are reports about treatment of asthma, that starts with present relief, but might couse - '' a troublelesome external erysipelatous inflamation, either general or local but which if use of tincture be persisted in, finaly disappears, and the patient becomes at the same time permatently cured of the disease for which he was treated.'' ( ''King's American Dispensatory'' John King 1854 ). Ptelea's bark is also used to increase appetite and digestion, dissolve calculi, for rheumatism, intermittent and remittent fevers, malaria, bronhitis, phthisis, syphilis, scrofula, pineworms, roundworms, diarrhoea, muscles pain, anorexia, general debility and convalescence. It contain insoluble in water oleoresin, tanic and galic acids, berberine, arginine, cumarine, dictamnine, saponins, many specific quinoline alkaloids and voltile oil.
   It act as a tonic, stimulant, stomachic, orexigenic, expectorant, alterative, analgesic, antipiretc, antibacterial, antifungal, antiperiodic, astringent, anthelmitic, intoxicant, vulnerary and diaphoretic. Leaves, fruits and flowers have similar but weaker actions and can be used in the same manner. Water infusions of any part of the plant, or crushed leaves can be applied on wounds as an promoting healing antiseptic.
  Diana Beresford-Kroeger, botanist and medicinal biochemist, wrote in her book, that pregnant and breastfeeding women shouldn't even handle this tree, becouse of its high cumarin content. This plant can also cause photosensitization of the skin and dermatitis may appear, as a resoult of open contact on sunny days.







    Sources

'' Historical Review of Ptelea trifoliata in Botanical and Medical Literature '' - Virginia Long Bailey
'' Florida Etnobotany '' - Daniel F. Austin, CRC Press 2004
'' American Medicinal Plants ''- Charles F. Millspaugh, Dover Publications Inc. 1974
'' Arboretum America - A Philosophy of the Forest '' - Diana Beresford-Kroeger,
    University of Michigan Press 2003
'' Let's Get Natural with Herbs'' - Debra Rayburn, Ozark Moutain Publishing 2007
''The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses'' - Deni Brown, DK 2002

http://doctorschar.com/archives/hoptree-ptelea-aquatica/
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/kings/ptelea.html
https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/ashwa078.html
http://keys2liberty.wordpress.com/tag/ptelea-trifoliata/
http://www.friendsofeloisebutler.org/pages/plants/hoptree.html
http://www.manataka.org/page73.html
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/ethnobot.pl?ethnobot.taxon=Ptelea%20trifoliata
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/1710/#b

sobota, 4 października 2014

Rhus typhina, Rhus hirta - Staghorn Sumac

Polska wersja

      PLANT PROFILE

   Staghorn Sumac is a low growing tree or tall bush with a picturesqe shape, fancy, velvety red fruit cones and leaves that are turning beautiful, scarlet red in autumn. It is native to eastern North America but is very popular in Europe, cultivated for its ornamental purposes. Rhus typhina syn. Rhus hirta is most common sumac in north of Europe. It hybridise not only with North American Smooth Sumac - Rhus glabra and Shining Sumac - Rhus copallina that share its medicinal and culinary values and so should their hybrids. But also with Miditerranean Rhus coriaria, which fruits are popular spice in Scilly, Turkey, Syria, Tunisia and also other countries of this region. There are also closely related, edible sumacs in China - Rhus chinensis, India - Rhus punjabensis and other South Asian countries. If You are affraid of sumacs because you have heard about poison sumac, you have to know that it looks very differently and have white fruits while all edible sumacs have red fruits. And it is also highly unlikely to find any poison sumac if you are anywhere in Europe and even hard in its homeland in North America. Dr. Henryk Różański famous Polish herbalist claims that tiny spikes/hears, that cover leaves, fruits and young stems of Staghorn sumac can couse breathing problems, allergies or even trigger asthma attack and skin rushes when rubbed. I never heard or read anything about it from any other source, and haven't noticed it myself, though I know this plant for many years. But it sounds reasonable to me and so I advice you to check it yourself for good, before you decide to grow it near your house.



   CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING

   Staghorn sumac is easy to grow bush that is quickly turining into small beautifull tree. It can grown 2m height in just 3 years but ussually stops growing up after reaching about 5m. Its crown width is ussually bigger than its hight and it have majestatic shape that looks wonderful especiall after leaves turning scarlet red and gold before they drop in late fall. Its crimson fruit cones that appear in late summer are also very ornamental. They are much more vivid than its greeny-yellow flowers and lasts much longer. It is giving its charm, staying at the tops of brunches even for whole winter, but if you want to use it in your kitchen pick it as soon as it will turn fully red. Don't wait till rains will wash away most of its flavour or it'll start to rot. After colecting you can use it fresh, freeze it for later or crumble into small pieces and dry. While most of Staghorn sumacs are dioecious which means they have either male or female flowers there are also some that have both and can self polinate. Rhus typhina can adapt to any soil and nearly any conditions ( at least in temperate climate zones ), so it is not the question of where it will feel good, but where You will feel good with it ( though not poisonous like Poison Sumac, it might couse alergic reactions ). It is hardy to -30'C and can stand severe heats and droughts, the only thing it seems to dislike is swampy, boggy ground and dark shade. It usually spreads through its rhizomes creating colonies of bushes around mother plants so it is better to start control it before it will become quite invasive.


      CULINARY USES

   Staghorn sumac fruits have nicely sour taste and soaked in cold water are giving pleasant lemonade like drink - sumac-ade, it can also be used as a lemon juice or vinegret substitute or brewed into wine.  Dried, grounded fruits of Rhus coriaria (identical in taste to those of Rhus typhina) are a popular spice in Middle East and Miditerranean area, called simply Sumac - which means red in Syrian language. It is added to kebabs, rosted chickens, fish dishes, stews, pizzas, rice, potatos and salads. It is also an ingredient of some of many variations of popular arab spices mix called Za'atar, that is based on Origanum syriacum.

   
     MEDICINAL USES

   Rhus typhina have been traditionally used by native North American Indians for common ailments. Fruits are consumed raw, dried or in form of infusion, for coughs, fevers, diabetis, to aid digestion and stop diarrhoea, stomach upset and bowels complains. They are astringent, antimicrobial, diuretic and puryfies the blood. It contains mainly malic acid, tanins, polyphenols, and amino acids, vitamins: C, B1, B2, B6, B12, cyanocobalamin, nicotinamide and biotin. It is also good source of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorum and sodium.
   Dried bark is rich in tannins and act antiseptic, astringent, galactogogue and tonic. In form of decoction it is used to treat diarrhoea, fevers, piles, general debility, uterine debility and to increase lactation. Sap is used applied on warts, but in some people it might couse alergic rash









    Sources

http://firstways.com/2011/08/23/how-and-why-to-eat-sumac/
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhus+typhina
http://theepicentre.com/spice/sumac/
http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-22-2/44.pdf
http://rozanski.li/?p=81
http://telemedicine.org/botanica/bot6.htm
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/47400
http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380377737_Borchardt%20et%20al.pdf
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/kings/rhus-glab.html
http://pjbs.org/pjnonline/fin1548.pdf